Samura Minister of Revenue launches campaign. This is in addition to the community asset that it helps build. Major interventions in this area also include ethiolia livestock quality, expansion of animal health services, water points, feed production and improvement of breeds and development of market infrastructure. The other more important thing in ADLI is research.

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The strategy promotes the use of labor-intensive methods to increase output and productivity by applying chemical inputs, diversifying production, utilizing improved agricultural technologies. ADLI also emphasizes the importance of distinguishing agro-ecological zones and tailors strategies as well as interventions for optimal development outcomes.

This distinction guides the differentiated interventions needed to promote cross-sectoral and integrated growth. The focus of ADLI is not the same in all states. In states with adequate rainfall, for example, the focus is on exerting all possible efforts to efficiently utilize available rainwater to bring about the maximum possible rate of agricultural development, and promoting irrigation in areas where it is feasible.

In moisture stress areas, major activities are undertaken to enhance food security focusing on increasing off-farm income opportunities, and voluntary resettlement to more productive areas.

In terms of pastoral areas, special efforts are made to enhance specialization in livestock production and marketing through the provision of water supply for the community and their livestock as well. Major interventions in this area also include improving livestock quality, expansion of animal health services, water points, feed production and improvement of breeds and development of market infrastructure.

While the strategy is based on the three main zones described above, it is realized that there is complex diversity within each of these zones; and hence, actual interventions are locally tailored accordingly. The instruments to achieve this include: focused infrastructure investments, especially in roads, telecommunications and connection to the electricity grid; intensified efforts to strengthen the flow of development finance, and administrative capacity in selected areas; and, agro-processing, tourism, and health interventions.

In all states, the emphasis will be on ensuring everything possible in place to facilitate the take-off of commercial opportunities. The transformation of the smallholder farmer is to be achieved through area based specialization as well as diversification of agricultural commodities. In line with this, commercialization of smallholder agriculture will be the engine for rural growth. The government will largely restrict itself to playing an inter mediating role where there are gaps.

Areas where the Government would have a comparative advantage include setting the regulatory framework and standards, financing infrastructure especially roads and the Rural Roads and Transport Program- and small-scale irrigation primarily focusing on water harvesting at the household level, helping farmers build medium-scale irrigation on a cost-recovery basis, and construction of some multipurpose dams that would support larger-scale irrigation.

Finally, in some cases the government may help with the acquisition of technology such as specialized seeds or genetic material from outside the country.

Specific policy measures to improve agricultural productivity and promote food security include: Agricultural extension and research, agricultural export promotion, food Security Program, productive Safety Net Program; and voluntary Resettlement Program. A key feature of this innovative policy measure is the deployment of extension workers to every rural Kebeles in Ethiopia to facilitate sustained knowledge and skills transfer to smallholder farmers.

This has contributed to increased agricultural productivity particularly for cereals, pulses, and oil seeds. In a situation where many farmers are illiterate, acquiring competence in production, adding value, and marketing presents challenges.

All agricultural extension activities will give due emphasis to gender integration as well. Agricultural training and extension services will identify activities that will benefit both women and men. Throughout the planning period, all of the female headed households will have access to extension services and will also get access to training and extension services in the type of extension packages that will benefit them most.

The other more important thing in ADLI is research. Effective agricultural research is also at the core of improving productivity and is central for making progress. The major outputs of the public research system are varieties with improved agronomic and protection practices that can be used in crop diversification and specialization, for both traditional food crops, as well as high value crops such as vegetables, spices and other horticultural crops.

Research is also conducted on food science, socioeconomic and post harvest technology as well as farm implements. The research centers maintain improved varieties and multiply breeder and basic seeds and seedlings with varieties of crops, and distribute them to different stakeholders as well. A special effort will be made to improve the research coverage of dry land and pastoral aggro-ecologies in the coming years, which has not been adequate in the past.

Emphasis will also be given to introduction and adaptation of high value crops to support specialization and diversification programs.

Additional areas of research include livestock research, with a focus on improved forage varieties, and generating better information on husbandry, health care, and breed improvement as well as research on land and forestry management, fisheries, and biotechnology. Biotechnology innovations have a substantial potential to enhance productivity. The agricultural biotechnology focuses on technologies like tissue culture, mass propagation, marker-assisted breeding in crops and livestock, and promotion of useful microbial processes.

Soil calibration of the major soil types of Ethiopia will also be conducted by the research system to better assess the amount of fertilizer required by different types of crops. Ethiopia was constantly dependent on international aid for decades so far, but now the country is registering a double digit economic growth for about a decade so as it has managed to achieve food security of its citizens. And the country is also building capacity to withstand food insecurities that has happened due to natural and climatic phenomenon such as the current El Nino.

Moreover, the Productive Safety Net Program is intended to bridge the income gap of chronically food insecure households, and engage such households in community asset building efforts especially during the lean season and times of drought. Priority for household asset-building interventions is given to beneficiaries of the Safety Net Program.










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