Lillian Hellman , the author of the original book, refused to let any of her work be used in the revival, so Prince commissioned a new, one-act book from Hugh Wheeler. The lyrics were worked on by the team of artists listed above. Stadlen Dr. Pangloss , and June Gable as the Old Lady. Eugene Lee helped Prince make sure that the multi-scene show would not get bogged down in set changes — he created platforms for the action that allowed scenes to change by refocusing attention instead of changing scenery. Actors performed on platforms in front, behind, and sometimes between audience members.
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Before long, LaTouche was replaced by poet Richard Wilbur. Hellman, Bernstein, and Wilbur worked periodically over the next two years but labored in earnest through , a year when Bernstein was simultaneously composing West Side Story.
By October , Candide was ready for performances in Boston, where Dorothy Parker contributed lyrics to "The Venice Gavotte" while Bernstein and Hellman had also added lyrics of their own to other numbers. The lyricist credits were already beginning to mount up. Although the theme of political aggression originally attracted Lillian Hellman to the project, her sharpest writing on the topic was ironically jettisoned while the show was still out of town.
Fortunately, the original cast album was recorded by Columbia Records, so the music thrived. In , a full-scale production in London, England, was prepared, with a revised book credited to Lillian Hellman assisted by Michael Stewart, and one new musical number "We Are Women," a duet for Cunegonde and the Old Lady, with lyrics by Leonard Bernstein. It is probably at this time that Mr.
In , Harold Prince and Hugh Wheeler devised a new small-scale version which drew the ire of Lillian Hellman , who at this time withdrew her original adaptation of Voltaire. Thus, the version of Candide is no longer available for performance.
Harold Prince directed a free-wheeling single-act production, which included some new lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and a thirteen-instrument orchestration by Hershy Kay. When this production moved to the Broadway Theater in Manhattan, the theater itself was rebuilt from the inside out: walkways and platforms were constructed around the auditorium, and the audience sat on wooden benches, right in the middle of the action.
The audience was even invited to eat peanuts during the show, adding to the circus-like atmosphere. Known as the "Chelsea" version, this is the earliest version of Candide available for performance.
As a full length two-act production, a great deal of music that had been cut in was reinstated, under Mr. Bernstein from a long-discarded aria. After Mr. Bernstein had attended the final rehearsals and the opening in Glasgow, as well as a production later in the season devised by Jonathan Miller for the Old Vic in London, he decided the time had come for the composer himself to re-examine Candide.
For example, he altered the endings of several numbers, including "Glitter and Be Gay," where he placed chords on off-beats in the manner of Tchaikovsky, whose Fourth Symphony he had just conducted. Leonard Bernstein and John Wells created a narration, performed at the time by Adolph Green, that moved the action swiftly from one musical number to the next.
Prince directed Candide for Livent, on Broadway. It had been more than twenty years since Candide had a Broadway production. While this publication encompasses the complete score, it by no means reflects a final, frozen show. Like its hero, Candide is perhaps destined never to find its perfect form and function; in the final analysis, however, that may prove philosophically appropriate. Book by Hugh Wheeler, adapted from Voltaire.
OVERTURE TO CANDIDE.pdf