Inouye U. E-mail: vog. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. All structural annotations are associated with the RefSeq assembly accession, and are considered annotation release
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For commercial re-use, please contact journals. In Brazil, C. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F.
These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg—adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. However, adults of F.
The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. Keywords: biological control, fruit fly, parasitoid, parasitism Fruit flies Diptera: Tephritidae are a serious problem in fruit production worldwide because not only do they cause damage to fruit, but they also lead to the establishment of quarantine barriers Aluja and Mangan In Brazil, Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann , A.
Among these species of fruit fly, B. Thus, in an aim to establish a set of measures to prevent the spread of B. Indigenous to the Asian continent, F. After its success in Hawaii, F. However, several studies demonstrate that the development and success of parasitism depends on the development of the host Bautista et al. Harris et al.
In species of the Anastrepha genus, the development of F. However, studies based on its development show that Anastrepha larvae were not suitable hosts for F. Therefore, it is feared that the possible release of F.
This study investigated the biology of F. Adults of A. Water and food composed of refined sugar, wheat germ, and yeast at a ratio of were offered Nunes et al. The eggs were collected from oviposition screens placed on the cage sides and were transferred to Erlenmeyer-type glass containers ml , where they remained for a 24 h aeration process.
The ingredients used and the preparation procedures for the artificial diet followed the methodologies described by Salles and Nunes et al. For every ml of the artificial diet, 0.
The processes to collect the larvae and to condition the pre-pupae and pupae in vermiculite were the same as those proposed by Salles and Nunes et al. For the rearing of C. Approximately 9, eggs per container 0. The diet used for larval development as well as the methodology used in rearing the insects in the pre-pupal and pupal stages were the same as those proposed by Salles and Nunes et al.
The rearing of F. Approximately 2, C. Next, the eggs were exposed to parasitism by F. After 6 h of parasitism, the eggs of C. After 9 d, the larvae were removed from the diet, washed under running water through a sieve 0. At pupation, the vermiculite was sifted through a galvanized sieve 0.
As the first adults emerged, the jar lids were replaced by a screen with 0. The food offered was a paste based on honey and shredded toilet paper, placed inside a Petri dish 2 cm in diameter. For the rearing of F. The same parasitism procedure described for C. Biology of F. The parasitoids were fed a honey drop on a piece of Parafilm Bemis Company, Inc. Thirty eggs of each host obtained from maintenance rearing were placed on a strip of filter paper with a 4 cm in length, which was placed on a sponge cloth moistened with distilled water.
After 24 h of exposure to the parasitoids, the eggs were removed and were placed onto the surface of an artificial diet 50 ml , prepared according to Salles , in plastic containers of ml. After 9 d of larval development for C. After obtaining the first adult insects fruit fly or parasitoid , the puparia were assessed daily. At the end of the experiment, the puparia that remained intact were dissected to check for the presence of flies or parasitoids that did not emerge to determine the true parasitism rate.
We evaluated the duration of the egg-to-adult period days , the parasitism rate P , the number of offspring ND , the parasitoid emergence rate E , the sex ratio rs , adult fresh weight 24 h after emergence g , and the longevity of males and females days. Statistical Analysis The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with two treatments hosts C. The data on parasitism and emergence rates, the number of offspring, adult weight and egg-to-adult period days were evaluated for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test and for homoscedasticity using the Hartley and Bartlett tests.
The longevity of adults of F. The parameters in the fertility life table were estimated by the jackknife method using lifetable programming in SAS Maia et al. Results The highest parasitism rate was observed in eggs of C. The peak of parasitism occurred at day 13 for C. The higher parasitism rate in the eggs of C. Regarding the sex ratio, adults from the eggs of C.
However, adult males emerging from eggs of A. The same pattern was also seen in female adults emerging from A. The average survival time longevity of females of F. However, males of F.
Fopius arisanus, an egg-pupal parasitoid of Tephritidae. Harris2 and S. Since its introduction to Hawaii in the late s, it has caused substantial reduction of fruit fly populations. Simultaneously, the parasitoid has been introduced to various parts of the world for classical biological control purposes. This paper reviews studies conducted on F.
Morphology: Species of Fopius are mostly red-brown, with darker abdomens , very long antennae and very long ovipositors. Geographical distribution: Species of Fopius, which are of Indo-Australian origin, have been introduced into many regions for the biological control of pestiferous fruit flies. Life history: Species of Fopius are egg-pupal endoparasitoids of fruit flies. They place eggs into the host egg and after eclosion the larva remains in the first instar , while the host larva grows and pupates. Growth of the parasitoid then resumes, and its adult emerges from the host puparium. Economic importance: Several introduced species of Fopius are major biological control factors of fruit flies in different parts of the world. Two species are known in the Middle East Fopius arisanus Sonan Also known as Biosteres arisanus Sonan This species was brought to Hawaii USA in , and after its success in controlling fruit fly pests was further introduced in Australia, Central America and various Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, as well as into the Mediterranean basin.