The city was a backdrop onto which the dynamism of Futurist life is projected. The city had replaced the landscape as the setting for the exciting modern life. He manipulates light and shape to emphasize the sculptural quality of his projects. Baroque curves and encrustations had been stripped away to reveal the essential lines of forms unprecedented from their simplicity. In the new city, every aspect of life was to be rationalized and centralized into one great powerhouse of energy. The city was not meant to last, and each subsequent generation was expected to build their own city rather than inheriting the architecture of the past.
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The city was a backdrop onto which the dynamism of Futurist life is projected. The city had replaced the landscape as the setting for the exciting modern life. He manipulates light and shape to emphasize the sculptural quality of his projects.
Baroque curves and encrustations had been stripped away to reveal the essential lines of forms unprecedented from their simplicity.
In the new city, every aspect of life was to be rationalized and centralized into one great powerhouse of energy. The city was not meant to last, and each subsequent generation was expected to build their own city rather than inheriting the architecture of the past.
Nevertheless, several Futurist buildings were built in the years —, including public buildings such as railway stations, maritime resorts and post offices. Main article: Futurism music Futurist music rejected tradition and introduced experimental sounds inspired by machinery, and would influence several 20th-century composers.
Francesco Balilla Pratella joined the Futurist movement in and wrote a Manifesto of Futurist Musicians in which he appealed to the young as had Marinetti , because only they could understand what he had to say. According to Pratella, Italian music was inferior to music abroad.
He praised the "sublime genius" of Wagner and saw some value in the work of other contemporary composers, for example Richard Strauss , Elgar , Mussorgsky , and Sibelius.
By contrast, the Italian symphony was dominated by opera in an "absurd and anti-musical form". The conservatories was said to encourage backwardness and mediocrity. The publishers perpetuated mediocrity and the domination of music by the "rickety and vulgar" operas of Puccini and Umberto Giordano.
In the face of this mediocrity and conservatism, Pratella unfurled "the red flag of Futurism, calling to its flaming symbol such young composers as have hearts to love and fight, minds to conceive, and brows free of cowardice.
Russolo used instruments he called intonarumori , which were acoustic noise generators that permitted the performer to create and control the dynamics and pitch of several different types of noises. Russolo and Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music, complete with intonarumori, in However they were prevented from performing in many major European cities by the outbreak of war. Futurism was one of several 20th-century movements in art music that paid homage to, included or imitated machines.
Ferruccio Busoni has been seen as anticipating some Futurist ideas, though he remained wedded to tradition. In Pacific , Honegger imitated the sound of a steam locomotive. Most notable in this respect, however, is the American George Antheil. The score calls for a percussion ensemble consisting of three xylophones , four bass drums, a tam-tam, three airplane propellers, seven electric bells, a siren, two "live pianists", and sixteen synchronized player pianos.
Dance[ edit ] The Futuristic movement also influenced the concept of dance. This type of dance is considered futuristic since it disrupts the referential system of traditional, classical dance and introduces a different style, new to the sophisticated bourgeois audience. The dancer no longer performs a story, a clear content, that can be read according to the rules of ballet. Trained as a classical ballerina, she is known for her "Aerodanze" and continued to earn her living by performing in classical and popular productions.
She describes this innovative form of dance as the result of a deep collaboration with Marinetti and his poetry. Through these words, she explains: " I launched this idea of the aerial-futurist poetry with Marinetti, he himself declaiming the poetry. A small stage of a few square meters; I made myself a satin costume with a helmet; everything that the plane did had to be expressed by my body.
It flew and, moreover, it gave the impression of these wings that trembled, of the apparatus that trembled, And the face had to express what the pilot felt.
Poetry, the predominate medium of Futurist literature, can be characterized by its unexpected combinations of images and hyper-conciseness not to be confused with the actual length of the poem.
In this way, the Futurists managed to create a new language free of syntax punctuation, and metrics that allowed for free expression. Theater also has an important place within the Futurist universe. Works in this genre have scenes that are few sentences long, have an emphasis on nonsensical humor, and attempt to discredit the deep rooted traditions via parody and other devaluation techniques.
Science Fiction novels play an important role in Futurist literature. We intend to glorify war—the only hygiene of the world—militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of anarchists, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and contempt for woman.
We intend to destroy museums, libraries, academics of every sort and to fight against moralism, feminism, and every utilitarian opportunistic cowardice. Saint-Point uses this as a segue into her antifeminist argument—giving women equal rights destroys their innate "potency" to strive for a better, more fulfilling life.
Notably among these female futurists is F. Letters continued to be exchanged between the two with F. T Marinetti often complimenting Benedetta - the single name she was best known as - on her genius. In a letter dated August 16, , Marinetti wrote to Benedetta "Do not forget your promise to work. You must carry your genius to its ultimate splendor.
Every day. R Cannonieri concerning the role of women in society. Like the Fascists, the Futurists were Italian nationalists, radicals , admirers of violence, and were opposed to parliamentary democracy. After the Second World War , many Futurist artists had difficulty in their careers because of their association with a defeated and discredited regime. Marinetti sought to make Futurism the official state art of Fascist Italy but failed to do so.
Mussolini chose to give patronage to numerous styles and movements in order to keep artists loyal to the regime. Opening the exhibition of art by the Novecento Italiano group in , he said, "I declare that it is far from my idea to encourage anything like a state art.
Art belongs to the domain of the individual. The state has only one duty: not to undermine art, to provide humane conditions for artists, to encourage them from the artistic and national point of view. Although in the early years of Italian Fascism modern art was tolerated and even embraced, towards the end of the s, right-wing Fascists introduced the concept of " degenerate art " from Germany to Italy and condemned Futurism.
Marinetti made numerous moves to ingratiate himself with the regime, becoming less radical and avant-garde with each. He moved from Milan to Rome to be nearer the centre of things. He became an academician despite his condemnation of academies, married despite his condemnation of marriage, promoted religious art after the Lateran Treaty of and even reconciled himself to the Catholic Church, declaring that Jesus was a Futurist.
The anti-Fascist voices in Futurism were not completely silenced until the annexation of Abyssinia and the Italo-German Pact of Steel in Futurism expanded to encompass many artistic domains and ultimately included painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, theatre design, textiles, drama, literature, music and architecture. Main article: Aeropittura Aeropainting aeropittura was a major expression of the second generation of Futurism beginning in The technology and excitement of flight, directly experienced by most aeropainters,  offered aeroplanes and aerial landscape as new subject matter.
Aeropainting was varied in subject matter and treatment, including realism especially in works of propaganda , abstraction, dynamism, quiet Umbrian landscapes,  portraits of Mussolini e. The artists stated that "The changing perspectives of flight constitute an absolutely new reality that has nothing in common with the reality traditionally constituted by a terrestrial perspective" and that "Painting from this new reality requires a profound contempt for detail and a need to synthesise and transfigure everything.
Crali continued to produce aeropittura up until the s. Legacy[ edit ] Futurism influenced many other twentieth-century art movements, including Art Deco , Vorticism , Constructivism , Surrealism , Dada , and much later Neo-Futurism   and the Grosvenor School linocut artists. Nonetheless, the ideals of Futurism remain as significant components of modern Western culture ; the emphasis on youth, speed, power and technology finding expression in much of modern commercial cinema and culture.
Futurism has produced several reactions, including the literary genre of cyberpunk —in which technology was often treated with a critical eye—whilst artists who came to prominence during the first flush of the Internet , such as Stelarc and Mariko Mori , produce work which comments on Futurist ideals.
Influences can also be discerned in dance music since the s. Guggenheim Museum featured the exhibition "Italian Futurism, — Reconstructing the Universe". It is best known for its large collection of Futurist paintings.
Futurist Manifestos by Apollonio
Shelves: non-fiction This is a good book to dip into, whether for a few full chapters or to pick out some attractively absolutist quotations, of which there are several per page. Of course, reading these with the hindsight of their eventual fate, with artists dying and the movement collapsing in the Great War that many of the Futurists had been so enthusiastic about, gives quite a different impression from the This is a good book to dip into, whether for a few full chapters or to pick out some attractively absolutist quotations, of which there are several per page. Of course, reading these with the hindsight of their eventual fate, with artists dying and the movement collapsing in the Great War that many of the Futurists had been so enthusiastic about, gives quite a different impression from the one they must have had on their original audience. Although they wanted to disrupt the art scene and the sensibilities of critics, and often invoked the idea of madness to do it, they were also attracted to fascism, which would destroy such disruptive freedom for those not of the elite. What is the use of looking behind at the moment when we must open the mysterious shutters of the Is there anything funnier than early 20th century men publishing manifestos on everything from art to what clothes they should wear to politics, all the while being completely serious and chauvinistic, but also able to throw wit into them?